e-ISSN 2329-0072




The relationship between the insertion-deletion polymorphism of the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) gene and hypertension in Polish patients

Marta Pacholczyk, Jan Kowalski, Lucjan Pawlicki, Jolanta Stróżyńska, Tomasz Ferenc

Med Sci Tech 2011; 52(1-2): RA29-39

ID: 882073

Available online:

Published: 2011-10-28

Background:    The angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) gene insertion-deletion (I/D) polymorphism has been identified as a potential genetic risk factor for essential hypertension. However, results of association studies regarding ACE are inconclusive in most populations.
        The purpose of our study was to investigate the association of the ACE I/D polymorphism with essential hypertension in the Polish population and to analyze the distribution of ACE gene polymorphic variants in patients with hypertension dependently on age, sex and body mass.
    Material/Methods:    The study population consisted of 144 hypertensive and 102 normotensive subjects. ACE insertion/deletion polymorphism was determined by PCR and agarose gel electrophoresis. DD genotype was further reconfirmed using insertion-allele-specific amplification.
    Results:    Statistically significant differences were observed in genotype distribution and DD genotype frequency between hypertensives and normotensives in the whole investigated group (P<0.05) and also in young individuals (<55 years old) (P<0.01). There were significant differences in genotype distribution between hypertensive and normotensive male subjects (P<0.05). The frequencies of men carrying ACE D allele was significantly higher in the hypertensive group (56.0%) than in controls (38.1%) (P<0.01). The ACE DD genotype was significantly higher in hypertensive women than in female controls (32.8% vs. 16.7%) (P<0.05). In overweight or obese subjects there were statistically significant differences in genotype distribution (P<0.05). D allele (but not DD genotype) frequency between hypertensives and normotensives was significantly higher in hypertensives with BMI >25.0 kg/m2 (54.8% vs. 39.1%) (P<0.05).
    Conclusions:    Our data suggest that the ACE deletion polymorphism might be a risk factor for hypertension in the Polish population.

Keywords: essential hypertension, angiotensin converting enzyme, gene polymorphism