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Lambda- and kappa-free light chains in haematologic patients

Patrick Brück, Johannes Atta, Hildegund Sauer-Eppel, Angelika Böhme, Gerhard M Oremek

Med Sci Tech 2008; 49(1): RA19-227

ID: 881583

Introduction: A new assay measuring free light chains (FLC) in serum and urine has become available (Freelite TM, The Binding Site). This turbidimetry based kit uses latex particle bound polyclonal antibodies directed against lambda- and kappa-FLC, thereby evaluating the concentration of these soluble antigens. Material and methods: The determination of the FLC concentration was performed in 51 samples of haemato-oncologic patients and correlated to the patients´ clinical history including age at diagnosis, sex, current disease status, other haematological parameters and specific markers of multiple myeloma. Results: The detection limit of this method on the Hitachi-Analyzer 917 is 3.7 mg/l for kappa-FLC and 7.0 mg/l for lambda-FLC, respectively. In our patients of different disease stages and states, the correlation of the results of the Freelite assay and the results of the detection of light chains by the κ/λ light chain assay on the BNII analyzer (Dade Behring) was moderately good (Pearsons correlation coefficient r = 0.85). No correlation was observed to patient´s characteristics, standard multiple myeloma risk factors (stage, beta-2- microglobuline) or different serum parameters of disease activity (total protein), infections (CRP) or renal function (creatinine). Patients with asecretory disease were confirmed as so. The FLC assay allowed detecting rapidly therapy responses in patients that received anti-myeloma therapy. Conclusions: The new method of FLC detecting with the Freelite assay allows determining the free light concentrations in serum with high fidelity and accuracy. As the response to therapy is reflected primarily in the free light chain concentrations this method is valuable to determine therapy effects with a greater range of detection than other established methods. (Clin Exp Med Lett 2008; 49(1): 19-22)

Keywords: Multiple Myeloma, Free Light Chains, Freelite ® assay

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